Penn State College of Medicine is committed to offering CME programs that promote improvements or quality in health care and are developed free of the control of commercial interests. Reasonable efforts have been taken to ensure that our programs are balanced, independent, objective, scientific, and in compliance with regulatory requirements. Faculty and course directors have disclosed all relevant financial relationships with commercial companies, and Penn State has a process in place to resolve any conflict of interest. Disclosure of a relationship is not intended to suggest or condone bias, but is made to provide participants with information that might be of potential importance to their evaluation of this educational activity. 
Course director, David Campbell, MD, reports that he has no financial relationship to disclose. Penn State College of Medicine staff and faculty involved in the development and review of this activity have disclosed no relevant financial relationships.

The following contributors disclose:

Robert Cerfolio, MD
Speakers Bureau:  Intuitive

Robert Saeid Farivar, MD, PhD
Speakers Bureau:  Edwards Lifesciences
Consultant/Advisor:  Edwards Lifesciences

Richard H. Feins, MD
Stock/Ownership:  KindHeart, Inc.

T. Sloane Guy, MD
Consultant/Advisor:  Edwards Lifesciences, Medtronic, Inc.

G. Chad Hughes, MD
Speakers Bureau:  W.L. Gore and Associates, Medtronic, Inc., Vascultek Terumo
Consultant/Advisor:  W.L. Gore and Associates, Medtronic, Inc.
Research Grant:  W.L. Gore and Associates, Medtronic, Inc., Cook Medical, Medical Carbon Research Institute

Dawn Jaroszewski, MD
Consultant/Advisor:  Guidepoint Global

Bradley G. Leshnower, MD
Speakers Bureau:  Medtronic, Inc., St. Jude’s Medical
Consultant/Advisor:  Cryolife, Inc.

Allan Pickens, MD
Speakers Bureau:  Ethicon

Michael F. Reed, MD
Consultant/Advisor:  Spiration (Olympus)

Arash Salemi, MD
Speakers Bureau:  Edwards Lifesciences

Richard J. Shemin, MD
Consultant/Advisor:  Edwards Lifesciences, AtriCure

Fred Weber, MD
Speakers Bureau:  Osler Institute

Grayson Wheatley, MD
Consultant/Advisor:  Bolton Medical, Medtronic, Inc.

All other contributors/question writers involved in the development of this activity reported no financial relationship to disclose.